One of the difficulties that arise with children who have different disorders is management both at home and at school, for this to be an adequate management of protection, respect and opportunities, collaborative work is important, permanent accompaniment, dialogue, understanding, it is necessary that the inclusion is made in such a way that the child appears calm, safe and equitable in their spaces. Well, the dictionary of the Royal Academy of Language (Spanish, 2021) indicates that inclusion comes from the Latin inclusio, and defines it as the action and effect of including. Connection or friendship of someone with another person.
These definitions are the opening to a normal life of all people on the planet regardless of any condition that may have and here the performance that we adults have in front of children is of the utmost importance, both in our language and in our behavior. It is significant from a young age to teach children that each person on the planet has talents, potentialities, but also limitations and the latter do not make us better or worse compared to others. (Osolo, 2014) expresses that for there to be true inclusion it is important to work on inclusive culture, inclusive policies and develop inclusive practices in schools.
As it is a topic of interest due to the increase in the number of children diagnosed daily worldwide, it is important to carry out these bibliographic reviews on the subject of educational inclusion. (Delgado Medina, Guitíerrez Retamal, López Alvarado, & Andrea, 2019) Inclusion understands disability as a social construction and sets its perspective on the barriers that produce disability that build the disabled label. This is the importance of building respect for difference in our children and also working on tolerance. In addition, they tell us that inclusion seeks to accompany life projects and options to reduce and eliminate barriers and promote learning, inclusive education being a process of continuous improvement of the educational system and institutions.
UNESCO (United Nations Educational Organization, 2021) states that inclusion in education guarantees equal opportunities for all in terms of education and that this continues to be a global challenge. In addition, they emphasize that inclusion and equality are the principles of quality education, seeking to eliminate obstacles to the participation and performance of all learners, taking into account the diversity of their needs, abilities and particularities, and eliminate all forms of discrimination in the field of learning. The UN (United, s.f.) The inclusion of disability is an essential condition for respect for human rights, sustainable development, peace and security.
The United Nations in the convention on the rights of persons with disabilities establishes:
a) Recalling that the principles of the Charter of the United Nations which proclaim that freedom, justice and peace in the world are based on the recognition of the inherent dignity and worth and the equal and inalienable rights of all members of the human family.
b) Recognizing that the United Nations, in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and in the International Covenants on Human Rights, have recognized and proclaimed that everyone has the rights and freedoms set forth in those instruments, without distinction of any kind.
c) Reaffirming the universality, indivisibility, interdependence and interrelationship of all human rights and fundamental freedoms, as well as the need to guarantee that persons with disabilities exercise them fully and without discrimination.
d) Recalling the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination, the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against women, the Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment, the Convention on the Rights of the Child and the International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families.
e) Recognizing that disability is an evolving concept that results from the interaction between people with disabilities and the barriers due to attitude and environment that prevent their full and effective participation in society, on an equal basis with others.
f) Recognizing the importance of the principles and policy guidelines contained in the World Program of Action for Persons with Disabilities and in the Standard Rules on the Equalization of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities as a factor in the promotion, formulation and implementation of evaluation of regulations, plans, programs and measures at the national, regional and international levels aimed at giving greater equality of opportunities to people with disabilities.
g) Stressing the importance of incorporating disability issues as an integral part of relevant sustainable development strategies.
h) Recognizing also that discrimination against any person on the basis of their disability constitutes a violation of the inherent dignity and worth of the human person.
i) Recognizing further the diversity of persons with disabilities.
j) Recognizing the need to promote and protect the human rights of all persons with disabilities, including those who need more intensive support.
k) Noting with concern that, despite these various instruments and activities, persons with disabilities continue to encounter barriers to participating on an equal basis with others in social life and that their human rights continue to be violated in all parts of the world.
l) Recognizing the importance of international cooperation to improve the living conditions of persons with disabilities in all countries, in particular in developing countries.
m) Recognizing the value of the contributions that persons with disabilities make and can make to the general well-being and diversity of their communities, and that the promotion of the full enjoyment of human rights and fundamental freedoms by persons with disabilities and their full participation will result in a greater sense of belonging for these people and significant progress in the economic, social and human development of society and in the eradication of poverty.
n) Recognizing the importance for persons with disabilities of their autonomy and individual independence, including the freedom to make their own decisions.
o) Considering that persons with disabilities should have the opportunity to participate actively in decision-making processes on policies and programmes, including those that directly affect them.
p) Concerned about the difficult situation of persons with disabilities who are victims of multiple or aggravated forms of discrimination based on race, color, sex, language, religion, political opinion or of any other nature, national origin, ethnic , indigenous or social, heritage, birth, age or any other condition.
q) Recognizing that women and girls with disabilities are often at increased risk, within and outside the home, of violence, injury or abuse, neglect or neglect, maltreatment or exploitation.
r) Recognizing also that children with disabilities must fully enjoy all human rights and fundamental freedoms on equal terms with other children, and recalling the obligations assumed in this regard by the States Parties to the Convention on the Rights of the Child.
s) Underlining the need to incorporate a gender perspective in all activities aimed at promoting the full enjoyment of human rights and fundamental freedoms by persons with disabilities.
t) Highlighting the fact that the majority of persons with disabilities live in conditions of poverty and recognizing, in this regard, the fundamental need to mitigate the negative effects of poverty on persons with disabilities.
u) Bearing in mind that, in order to achieve the full protection of persons with disabilities, in particular during armed conflicts and foreign occupation, it is essential that conditions of peace and security exist based on full respect for the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations and the existing instruments on human rights are respected.
v) Recognizing the importance of accessibility to the physical, social, economic and cultural environment, to health and education, and to information and communications, so that persons with disabilities can fully enjoy all human rights and fundamental freedoms.
w) Aware that people, who have obligations towards other people and the community to which they belong, have the responsibility to ensure, by all means, that the rights recognized in the International Bill of Human Rights are promoted and respected.
x) Convinced that the family is the natural and fundamental collective unit of society and has the right to receive protection from it and from the State, and that persons with disabilities and their families must receive the necessary protection and assistance so that families can help people with disabilities to enjoy their rights fully and under equal conditions.
y) Convinced that a broad and comprehensive international convention to promote and protect the rights and dignity of persons with disabilities will contribute significantly to alleviating the profound social disadvantage of persons with disabilities and will promote their participation, with equal opportunities, in civil, political, economic, social and cultural spheres, both in developing and developed countries.
Independent of all the regulations at the world level, the role that each teacher plays in their classrooms with the children in inclusion is very important and in this sense they contribute to us (Ruth Clavijo, 2016) they state that inclusive education does not materialize simply because it is in the international regulations and legal framework of each country are the teachers who make it possible.
Delgado Medina, F. C., Guitíerrez Retamal, A. V., López Alvarado, C. E., & Andrea, L. M. (2019). Diseño de estrategias de trabajo colaborativo entre docente de aula regular y educador diferencial en asignaturas no consideradas como fundamentales para niños y niñas con trastorno específico del lenguaje, de un Colegio particular subvencionado . Chile.
Española, R. A. (2021). Diccionario. RAE.
Organización de las Naciones Unidas para la Educación, l. c. (2021). UNESCO. Obtenido de es.unesco.org/themes/inclusión-educación
Osolo, J. B. (2014). Educación e inclusión: El aporte profesional de la salud. Revista Médica Clínica Los Condes, 363 – 371.
Ruth Clavijo, C. L. (2016). Actitudes docentes hacia la educación inclusiva en Cuenca. MASKANA, Vol. 7 No. 1.
Unidas, O. d. (s.f.). Naciones Unidas. Obtenido de https://www.un.org/es/observances/day-of-persons-with-disabilities#:~:text=La%20inclusi%C3%B3n%20de%20la%20discapacidad,la%20paz%20y%20la%20seguridad.&text=La%20inclusi%C3%B3n%20de%20la%20discapacidad%20resultar%C3%A1%20en%20una%20respuesta%20frente,crisis