During the month of February, 123 por mi will focus on the world of adolescents, for which we have considered important to determine how much population we are talking about worldwide, the (UN) refers that there are currently 1,200 million young people between 15 and 24 years, 16% of the world population, it is estimated that by the year 2030 the number of young people will have increased by 7% to almost 1,300 million, this being a significant population to want to go and enter the nourishing and enriching world of the adolescent. In a first instance we will see statistics, definitions of organizations worldwide and that for them are of their spring, relevant information to have an understanding of the magnitude and importance of the issue and which concerns all humanity.
The Royal Academy of the Spanish Language (Española, 2020) defines adolescence as the period of human life that follows childhood and precedes youth.
The (WHO) defines adolescence as the period of growth and human development that occurs after childhood and before adulthood, between 10 and 19 years, it is one of the most important transition stages of human life, which is characterized by an accelerated rate of growth and change, surpassed only that experienced by infants, this phase of growth and development is conditioned by various biological processes. The onset of puberty marks the passage from childhood to adolescence, and adolescence is also referred to as a period of preparation for adulthood during which various developmental experiences of great importance occur. Beyond physical and sexual maturation, these experiences include the transition to social and economic independence, the development of identity, the acquisition of the skills needed to establish adult relationships, assume adult roles, and the capacity for abstract reasoning. Referring to the above, that being an adolescent is not only a change from the physical, but also comes immersed in psychological, emotional, social changes, is that stage that collects the learning during childhood and prepares for adult life.
The (Unicef.org) gives us an overview where it says that almost half the world’s population, about 3,000 million people, is under 25 years. Among the total population of adolescents, 1.3 billion are in developing countries and more than 500 million are adolescent girls. It adds that adolescence is a period of transition between childhood and adulthood and, for analysis purposes, can be segmented into three stages: early (10-13 years old), middle (14-16 years old), and late (17-19 years old) adolescence. In addition, they add, it is a very important time in life because the experiences, knowledge and skills acquired during it have important implications for the individual’s opportunities in adulthood. UNICEF attaches particular importance to reaching the most disadvantaged and marginalized adolescents by protecting their rights in all kinds of situations, including conflict, post-conflict and emergency.
(Childhood, 2002) Adolescence is one of the most fascinating and perhaps most complex phases of life, a time when young people take on new responsibilities and experience a sense of independence. Young people search for their identity, learn to put into practice values learned in early childhood, and develop skills that will enable them to become caring and responsible adults. When adolescents receive support and encouragement from adults, they develop in unimaginable ways by becoming full members of their families and communities and willing to contribute. Full of energy, curiosity and a spirit that does not easily die out, young people have in their hands the ability to change negative social behavior patterns and break the cycle of violence and discrimination that is passed on from generation to generation. With their creativity, energy, and enthusiasm, young people can change the world in impressive ways, making it a better place, not only for themselves but for everyone.
According to the previous revisions we infer that it is a little debated and discordant topic, which has made conceptualizations unnecessary and even in the chronology of the beginning and end of adolescence, generating a prism of dilemmas around the topic which makes it difficult or causes certain confusions. This does not mean that we cannot have different arguments because we know that there are no absolute truths, Here the point in discussion is that uncertainties and even fears are caused in many occasions to the «daily» of the population, who needs to know, to investigate and because not to solve difficulties that are presented in their families with respect to their adolescent children, it is important that the competent Institutions begin to work in team and not in an isolated way in this content to be able to specify or try to be as assertive as possible. In addition, it allows us to stop classifying adolescence in categories such as «difficult stage», «rebellion», «incomprehension», «abnormality», «defiant», «rebellious», among many others.
In 123pormi we consider this an interesting, exciting, creative, productive and even challenging stage to investigate, understand and analyze, it invites us to see it as a moment of human development, meaning that we must look at it in a way that is comparable to the other stages or processes.
Well, continuing with the objective of this document we will continue reviewing states of art on adolescence, but not without first indicating that later we will discuss in front of the topic.
Different areas such as anthropology, psychology, developmental biology, sociology and history have made contributions on the subject, but none have been decisive. Humberto Acosta refers that there are diverse knowledges, disciplines, and even dissimilar among them. Acosta (M) defines adolescence as the process of social and psychological definition of the subject, this is seen as a stage where you can not locate the person or in childhood, nor is adulthood. With the previous thing, it could be considered that the stage of the adolescence must be treated like a process of normal development of the course of life of the human beings, when one looks at the adolescent in a state where it is neither the one (childhood), nor the other (adulthood) one is not knowing the process of evolutionary development of the individual in himself, and is in this point where it is denied his own place to him, generating conceptual breaches, diminishing all possibility of offering an own, calm, healthy and understandable course to him.
We must seek criteria of evaluation for each of the stages, obviously recognizing that each one has structural and functional differences, without judging only adolescence as a critical stage, since it would be to mark from the outset as «uneven» with respect to the others that also have their own misunderstandings, disadvantages, and advantages, therefore, the stages should not be reviewed in an isolated or fractionated way one from the other, since each one is geared to become a whole, since everything is related and interconnected. But, taking up again the objective of this writing and reviewing the states of art that are in front of the subject, we will continue illustrating the different concepts about which we are concerned today.
Acosta concludes that an adolescent cannot be anything else than that; an adolescent is not a child, nor an adult, and for the same reason he has his own needs and expectations in front of his world and future that is more and more uncertain for him.
(Lutte) indicates that adolescence is the time of discovering oneself, others, the whole world. There is a cognitive explosion and intellectual horizons expand to the limits of the universe; characterized by an intense need for autonomy, with conflicts with parents, by crises, worries and insecurities, doubts about one’s own identity. He concludes that the notion of adolescence as preparation for adulthood is open to criticism, since studies on the life cycle have proven that personality development takes place throughout life and does not stop at the end of adolescence, as manifested not only by this author but by other theorists.
(Pérez & Santiago) Adolescence is a stage between childhood and adulthood, which chronologically begins with pubertal changes and is characterized by profound biological, psychological and social transformations, many of which generate crises, conflicts and contradictions, but essentially positive ones. It is not only a period of adaptation to bodily changes, but a phase of great determinations towards greater psychological and social independence.
They make it clear to us that it is a stage like the other stages that bring with them important and determining biological changes for the human being, just as in each stage there are psychological and social changes of the individual, being the processes of the human being a continuous and growing spiral until the end of his days.
(Espinosa) describes adolescence as a special period of growth development in the life of each individual. It is a phase of transition between a stage, the infantile one to culminate in the adult one. It is a stage of elaboration of the definitive identity of each subject that will be shaped in his adult individuation. All this implies a mental work, slow and full of difficulties, which make the adolescence an episode of which almost everyone is ashamed, relegated to oblivion. This work will manifest itself in a set of symptomatic complexes that summarize the struggles and sometimes violent efforts to solve the challenges of growing up and reaching the adult stage.
All the stages of life bring with them an endless number of situations and learning, to try to only attribute to one stage the difficulties or complexities of life is to undermine an important and fundamental space for human beings. That is why we invite you during this month to get to know certain dynamics and to familiarize ourselves in a calm way with an inevitable moment in everyone’s life, ADOLESCENCE.