The family has fulfilled significant functions in different cultural contexts over time and with specific characteristics according to the demands of the environment. In recent decades there have been significant changes in its structure, its size, the relationships between its members and its links with other institutions and groups. One of the most marked transformations is the growing plurality of family types and the increasingly evident variety of their forms of organization, which has as a consequence that the concept of family itself has become increasingly complex. This diversification has intensified the debate and controversy about what the family is and what it should be, as well as about the psychological and social processes that develop in the family environment, among which the raising of children stands out.
To understand the trends of family life in contemporary societies, it is necessary to take into account that the family is part of a broader sociocultural environment; that is, there is a dynamic interrelation with other areas of the culture in which it is immersed. In all societies, the family as an institution fulfills multiple functions of an economic, reproductive, sexual and educational nature that are essential for its reproduction and transformation at the collective level, as well as for learning behavioral patterns and cultural norms that should facilitate insertion. and participation of people at the individual level in a particular setting. The specific way in which these functions are carried out depends to a large extent on the characteristics of the context, which is why it is necessary to address their relationship with culture.
We must bear in mind that culture and upbringing are found in something that we could call cultural identity, since it mixes the identity of the culture of the place where we were born and where we were raised with the values and principles that we have been taught.
Cultural identity is a set of values, traditions, symbols, beliefs and modes of behavior that function as a cohesive element within a social group. And that act as a substrate so that the individuals that form it can base their feeling of belonging. However, cultures are not homogeneous; within them are groups or subcultures that are part of their internal diversity in response to the interests, codes, norms and rituals that these groups share within the dominant culture.
According to Jaime Fisher, cultural identity is the sense of belonging to a certain social group and is a criterion to differentiate oneself from other groups. In this way, an individual can identify with some or some of the cultural contents of a social group (traditions, customs, values) but and this is significant to understand the concept of cultural identity from Fisher- within the same apparently homogeneous group there are various identities, since each of its members identifies with several – not all, nor in the same way – with the indicated components. Multiversity, then, is that set of possible identities within the same group. The author proposes three basic types of cultural identity and three different types of multiculturalism. Namely endogenous, exogenous and intercultural. In the first, a minority indigenous group is politically subject to a nation-state with Western values.
With this in mind, we are going to explain in this month and understand a little about the culture and upbringing of children in different countries and cities.