Reading comprehension

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Panda is the name for two nocturnal Asian mammals: the red panda and the giant panda. The red panda, also known as lesser panda and cat bear, is found at high elevations in the Himalayas. It resembles a raccoon but has a longer body and tail and a more rounded head. Its thick fur is rust color to deep chestnut, with black on the under parts, limbs, and ears. The red panda spends much of its time in trees but feeds on the ground, eating primarily bamboo leaves but also fruit and roots. The giant panda superficially resembles a bear. The body is chiefly white, and the limbs are brownish black, with the dark color extending up over the shoulder. The ears and eye patches are black. Giant pandas live in restricted areas of the high mountain bamboo forests of central China; their diet consists entirely of bamboo shoots. Rare in the wild, they produce young poorly when they are not in their natural environment. Giant pandas are protected by law in China.

Questions:

1. It can be understood from the passage that —-.

A) all the nocturnal mammals in China are called panda
B) the diets of the red panda and the giant panda are not totally the same
C) there are no pandas in China for the time being
D) the under parts, limbs, and ears of the giant panda are all white
E) bamboo shoots are an important part of the diets of the people living in China
2. It is clear from the passage that —-.

A) giant pandas do have breeding problems in captivity
B) the red panda is also called raccoon in the Himalayas
C) the giant panda never spends its time in trees
D) cat bear is a more dangerous animal than the red panda
E) bears and pandas can live together in their natural environment
3. It can be inferred from the passage that —-.

A) though they share a name, red and giant pandas are not alike in many ways
B) the number of the bamboo forests of China is decreasing
C) red pandas usually live on chestnuts just like giant pandas
D) it is surprising that the giant pandas are not in danger of becoming extinct
E) all the mammals at high elevations in the Himalayas are nocturnal

Answers:

  1. B
  2. A
  3. A

Reading comprehension

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Stonehenge is an ancient monument situated about ten miles north of Salisbury in England. It was built about 4500 years ago, but by whom and for what purpose remains a mystery. The builders must have known of geometry. They may have been influenced by the Mycenaeans, whose architecture was similar. Some of the stones must have been brought from West Wales, over 135 miles away. These stones weigh more than fifty tons. They may have been brought on rafts and rollers. Experts say that it must have taken 1500 men more than five years to transport them. Stonehenge was probably built in three stages. First, settlers from continental Europe built a temple for sun worship. Later the “Beaker” people added the stone circles. Finally, people of the Wesse Culture transformed Stonehenge into an observatory. They could calculate the exact time of Midsummer and Midwinter and of equinoxes.

Questions:

1. We understand from the passage that the construction of the Stonehenge.

A) began 135 miles away from Salisbury
B) is thought to have taken place in more than one stage
C) was first documented by the Mycenaeans
D) is not a mystery that needs to be solved
E) was completed in less than five years


2. It is pointed out in the reading that the Stonehenge.

A) was built by the Mycenaeans, who were very advanced in geometry
B) probably has religious origins, possibly for worship of the sun
C) had no astrological purposes
D) was erected thousands of years ago in West Wales
E) is still used to calculate the changes of the seasons


3. According to the passage, there is no certainty about.

A) where the Stonehenge was built
B) what kind of stones were used in the construction of the Stonehenge
C) how to calculate the exact time of Midsummer and Midwinter and of equinoxes
D) how the stones used in the construction of the Stonehenge were transported
E) whether some of the stones are in position to reflect the movements of the sun and the moon

Answers:

  1. B
  2. B
  3. D

Reading comprehension

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In the 1920s, new technology allowed filmmakers to attach to each film a soundtrack of speech, music and sound effects synchronized with the action on the screen. These sound films were initially distinguished by calling them talking pictures, or talkies. The next major step in the development of cinema was the introduction of color. While the addition of sound to film revolutionized the medium, quickly driving out silent movies, color was adopted more gradually. The public was relatively indifferent to color photography as opposed to black-and-white. But as color processes improved and became as affordable as black-and-white film, more and more movies were filmed in color after the end of World War II, as the industry in America came to view color an essential to attracting audiences in its competition with television, which remained a black-and-white medium until the mid-60s. By the end of the 1960s, color had become the norm for filmmakers.

Question:

1. We can understand from the passage that the introduction of sound films.

A) occurred at the time of the introduction of color films
B) was not easy because it was not affordable
C) made color movies a possibility on a commercial basis
D) was an important milestone in the film industry
E) was delayed until after the end of World War II

2. It is stated in the reading that.

A) 1920s marked the end to the era of sound films
B) the transition to color films was not as rapid as the transition to sound films
C) color movies did not appear until the mid- 60s
D) television didn’t become popular until the mid-60s
E) color TVs were expensive initially


3. One can understand from the passage that.

A) black-and-white films are still a wonderful source of entertainment
B) the film industry fell into a serious crisis after the end of World War II
C) the’ arrival of sound films ended the popularity of silent movies
D) the introduction of color to movies didn’t help movie industry in its competition with television
E) the public was indifferent to sound films

Answers:

  1. D
  2. B
  3. C

Reading comprehension

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An ultralight airplane is very different from a conventional airplane. It looks like a lawn chair with wings, weighs no more than 254 pounds, flies up to 60 miles an hour, and carries about 5 gallons of fuel. Most ultralights are sold as kits and take about 40 hours to assemble. Flying an ultralight airplane is so easy that a pilot with no experience can fly one. Accidents are rarely fatal or even serious because the ultralight lands so slowly and gently and carries very little fuel. Some models now have parachutes attached, while others have parachute packs which pilots can wear.

Questions:

1. According to the passage, pilots.

A) prefer to fly with ultralights rather than with regular aircraft
B) can weigh up to 250 pounds, depending on the model of the ultralight airplane
C) don’t think that their ultralight airplanes are simple to use
D) are reluctant to put their ultralights together
E) don’t need a special training to fly an ultralight airplane


2. We learn from the passage that an ultralight airplane.

A) provides the only opportunity to fly affordably
B) doesn’t fly very well if it weighs less than 254 pounds
C) is inexpensive but difficult to fly
D) can be put together in a short time
E) is only permitted to be used for private recreational flying


3. It is pointed out in the reading that.

A) there is more risk involved in flying ultralight aeroplanes than in flying general aviation aircraft
B) ultralight airplanes can remain airborne for more than an hour
C) the risk of injury to a passenger in an ultralight airplane is very low
D) the gear an ultralight airplane carries can be more fragile than traditional equipment
E) people who fly ‘ultralights don’t need a license

Answers:

  1. E
  2. D
  3. C

Reading comprehension

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The Great Hanshin earthquake, or the Kobe earthquake as it is more commonly known overseas, was an earthquake in Japan that measured 7.2 on the Japanese Scale. It occurred on January 17, 1995 at 5:46 am 52 seconds in the southern part of Hyogo Prefecture and lasted for approximately 20 seconds. The epicenter of the earthquake was on the northern end of Awaji Island, near the cosmopolitan city of Kobe with a population of 1.5 million. A total of 6,433 people, mainly in the city of Kobe, lost their lives. Additionally, it caused approximately ten trillion yen in damage. It is listed in the Guinness Book of Records as the costliest natural disaster. It was the worst .earthquake in Japan since the Great Kanto earthquake in 1923, which claimed 140,000 lives.

Questions:

1. It is stated in the passage that the number of deaths in the city of Kobe.

A) was greater than that of Hurricane Katrina
B) was not as high as in the Great Kanto earthquake
C) exceeded that of any known earthquake
D) was extremely high for an earthquake of this magnitude
E) was small due to the type of construction

2. According to the passage, the Kobe earthquake is listed in the Guinness Book of Records because.

A) it has been the highest magnitude earthquake recorded so far
B) it lasted less than 20 seconds
C) it caused more financial damage than any other natural disaster in the world
D) the city of Kobe suffered the highest number of deaths among affect regions
E) its epicenter was on the northern end of Awaji island


3. We understand from the passage that the Kobe earthquake.

A) is internationally known as the Great Hanshin earthquake
B) didn’t cause any damage in the neighborhood of Kobe
C) was the first to cause widespread and serious damage to modern buildings
D) is not the deadliest earthquake in the history of Japan
E) had a higher magnitude than the Great Kanto earthquake

Answers:

  1. B
  2. C
  3. D

Reading comprehension

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When the air is clear, the sunset will appear yellow, because the light from the sun has passed a long distance through air and the blue light has been scattered away. If the air is polluted with small particles, natural or otherwise, the sunset will be more red. Sunsets over the sea may also be orange, due to salt particles in the air. The sky around the sun is seen reddened, as well as the light coming directly from the sun. This is because all light is scattered relatively well through small angles, but blue light is then more likely to be scattered twice over the greater distances, leaving the yellow, red and orange colors.

Questions:

1. As it is pointed out in the passage, the color of the sunset.

A) may be lighter than expected due to salt particles in the air
B) is red if the sky is clear
C) owes its blueness to the distance between the sun and the earth
D) is a combination of all the colors
E) depends on the weather conditions and the location where it takes place

2. One can infer from the passage that the sunset looks yellow because.

A) scattering does not play an appreciable role in determining the color of the transmitted light
B) the blue light is scattered on the long way through the air at that time
C) the light coming directly from the sun is blue
D) the air is polluted to such a degree that the Earth’s climate is actually changing
E) sunsets generally take place on the sea

3. As it is pointed out in the passage.

A) our eyes are more sensitive to light with blue frequencies
B) the red light passes easily through the air without scattering at all
C) when the sun sets, only the blue light is left
D) the sunset is likely to look orange when small particles, such as salt from sea spray, are in the air
E) by the time the light from a sunset gets to you, only red light remains

Answers:

  1. E
  2. B
  3. D

Reading comprehension

Read the text and answer the questions.

Autism is a brain development disorder that impairs social interaction and communication and causes restricted and repetitive behavior, all starting before a child is three years old. The genetics of autism are complex and it is generally unclear which genes are responsible for it. Autism affects many parts of the brain but how this occurs is also poorly understood. Autism is strongly associated with agents that cause birth defects. Other proposed causes, such as childhood vaccines, are controversial and the vaccine hypotheses lack convincing scientific evidence. The number of people known to have autism has increased dramatically since the 1980s. Parents usually notice signs in the first two years of their child’s life. Early behavioral cognitive intervention can help children gain self-care, social and communication skills but there is no cure for it. Few children with autism live independently after reaching adulthood, but same become successful and an autistic culture has developed, with same seeking a cure and others believing that autism is a condition rather than a disorder.

Questions:

1. According to the passage, autism is a developmental disorder of the human brain.

A) that gives its first signs early in the childhood period
B) which is caused by childhood vaccines
C) which can’t be diagnosed until after the child is three years old
D) for which there has been a successful cure in recent years
E) whose causes have been fully understood


2. It can be understood from the passage that autism.

A) is caused by a childhood vaccine that affects the development of the brain
B) is accepted as a condition rather than a disorder by all specialists
C) is a condition in which a child suffers from severe pains in the head
D) was a more prevalent disorder in the past than it is today
E) is characterized by abnormalities of behavior patterns


3. It can be understood from the passage that.

A) autistic children cannot hear the sounds and are unable to talk with others
B) even if the treatment for autism starts early, the child doesn’t have any chance to recover completely
C) when they become an adult all autistic people can live as actively as normal people do
D) people with autism should be encouraged to live on their own
E) scientists know which genes are responsible for the development of autism

Answers:

  1. A
  2. E
  3. B

Reading comprehension

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Traditionally, many linguists stressed the importance of mastering grammar structures first while teaching English. In recent years, the majority of educators have become more aware of the fallacy of this approach and other approaches promoting vocabulary development have gained popularity. It has been found out without vocabulary to put on top of the grammar system, the learners can actually say very little despite being able to manipulate complex grammatical structures in exercise drills. It is obvious that to learn English, one needs to learn many words. Native speakers have a vocabulary of about 20,000 words but foreign learners of English need far fewer. They need only about 5,000 words to be quite competent in speaking and listening. The reason for this seemingly small number is the nature of words and the frequency with which they appear in a language. It seems clear that frequent words should be among the first words to learn because they will be met most of ten and will be needed in speech or writing.

Questions:

1. According to the passage, it is true that while learning English, one.

A) cannot achieve competency in language skills just through mastering grammar structures
B) needs to be taught at least 20,000 words to communicate with foreigners easily
C) must learn grammar structures right away
D) must focus on practicing as many grammar structures as possible according to contemporary language teaching approaches
E) should first try to develop his understanding of written texts


2. According to the passage, when the approaches to English language teaching are taken into consideration.

A) the best method is the one which focuses on developing the learners’ speaking and listening skills first
B) each method has its own strong and weak points
C) the ones emphasizing the importance of developing learners’ vocabulary first have already become outdated
D) recent approaches haven’t proved to be effective in language teaching so far
E) most educators are not in favor of the traditional approach having dominated the language teaching field once anymore


3. It is stated in the passage that.

A) a great number of educators today believe that mastering grammar points is more important than learning words while studying a foreign language
B) grammar drills are effective in teaching the most frequently encountered English words
C) an approach based on mastering grammar structures first to teach English is at most unlikely to find supporters today
D) the learners of English are required to learn all grammar structures perfectly in order to make themselves understood by foreigners
E) the number of English words which must be learned to communicate with a foreigner exceeds 20,000

Answers:

  1. A
  2. E
  3. C

Reading comprehension

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You may have heard that tomatoes and processed tomato products like tomato sauce and canned tomatoes protect against some types of cancer. The cancer-preventing properties of tomato products have been attributed to lycopene. It is a bright red pigment found in tomatoes and other red fruits and is the cause of their red color. Unlike other fruits and vegetables, where nutritional content such as vitamin C is diminished upon cooking, processing of tomatoes increases the concentration of lycopene. Lycopene in tomato paste is four times more than in fresh tomatoes. This is because lycopene is insoluble in water and is tightly bound to vegetable fiber. Thus, processed tomato products such as pasteurized tomato juice, so up, sauce, and ketchup contain the highest concentrations of lycopene. Cooking and crushing tomatoes as in the canning process and serving in oil-rich dishes such as spaghetti sauce or pizza greatly increase assimilation from the digestive tract into the bloodstream. Lycopene is a fat-soluble substance, so the oil is said to help absorption to a great extent.

Questions:

1. According to the passage, it is true that lycopene.

A) can only be found in processed tomato products
B) loses its cancer-preventing property when the tomato is processed
C) lowers the risk of having cancer only when it is consumed together with vitamin
D) is absorbed by the body more easily when accompanied by the oil
E) is a pigment which is solved quickly in water


2. It can be understood from the passage that as far as the lycopene intake is concerned.

A) lycopene hardly offers any protection against diseases such as cancer
B) one can get the highest amount of lycopene through eating fresh tomatoes
C) there is a correlation between the lycopene consumption and the prevention of some cancer types
D) there have been no reported side effects or toxicity associated with intake
E) tomato products contain high concentrations of lycopene and fat


3. It can be understood from the passage that.

A) lycopene is what gives some fruits their color
B) no credible evidence has been found to support an association between lycopene intake and a reduced risk of cancer
C) processed tomato products include the lowest concentrations of lycopene
D) there are several health problems that may result from consuming a great deal of lycopene
E) unlike the popular belief, fat doesn’t help the absorption of lycopene in the body

Answers:

  1. D
  2. C
  3. A

Reading comprehension

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The grey wolf also known as the timber wolf or wolf is a mammal of the order Carnivore. Genetic studies indicate the grey wolf shares a common ancestry with the domestic dog and might be its ancestor. Many other grey wolf subspecies have been identified however the actual number of subspecies is still open to discussion. Though once abundant over much of North America and areas of Europe and Asia, the grey wolf inhabits a very small portion of its former range because of the widespread destruction of its habitat. Gray wolves are highly adaptable and have thrived in forests, deserts, mountains, tundra and grasslands. They function as social predators and hunt in packs organized according to strict social hierarchies. It was originally believed that this comparatively high level of social organization was related to hunting success, and while this still may be true to a certain extent, emerging theories suggest that the pack has less to do with hunting and more to do with reproductive success.

1. We can understand from the passage that the grey wolf —-.

A) is able to survive in a wide variety of habitats
B) prefers to hunt individually rather than in groups
C) was once found in every continent of the world in great numbers
D) has been proved to be the ancestor of the domestic dog and all its subspecies
E) and the timber wolf are two different species of wolf
2. It is understood from the passage that —-.

A) the number of grey wolf subspecies has been determined with certainty by researchers
B) there are few grey wolf subspecies which continue living today
C) grey wolf subspecies have increased in number in the last decades
D) it is known that many of grey wolf subspecies have already become extinct
E) there is no consensus on how many grey wolf subspecies exist
3. According to the passage, in the light of the genetic studies carried out, It has been found out that —-.

A) the domestic dog could have descended from the grey wolf
B) the grey wolf and the domestic dog are the subspecies of a kind of wolf having lived thousands of years ago
C) the dog is believed to be ancestor of the grey wolf
D) grey wolves live in very large packs
E) grey wolves live only in Europe and Asia today

Answers:

  1. A
  2. E
  3. A